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Sefer Daniel: Part 19 - Perek 9: The Second Bais HaMikdash
"In the first year of Daryavesh, the son of Achashverosh, from the seed of Madai, who ruled over the kingdom of the Chasdim."
"The seed of Madai"- This was to differentiate him from the second Daryavash who was also the son of Achashverosh (and Esther), who was Daryavash the Persian.
"In the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, pondered the calculation, the number of years about which the word of Hashem had come to the prophet Yirmayahu, to fulfill the seventy years from the ruins of Jerusalem."
It was seventy years since Nevuchadnetzer had subdued Yehoyakaim, and the kingdom of Bavel had ended, as had been promised in nevuah to Yirmayahu. Daniel mistakenly thought that the nevuah which promised the rebuilding of the Bais Hamikdash would be fulfilled at the end of this seventy year period as well. He perused all the books of nevuah to Yirmayahu and discovered that there were two versions of when the geulah would take place. The first was seventy years after the subjugation of Yehoyakim, and the second was seventy years after the destruction of Yerushalayim, which was eighteen years after Yehoyakim's subjugation. Daniel reasoned that the first date for geulah was dependent on the merits of Bnei Yisrael, and the second was set, and would happen regardless of Bnei Yisrael's merits. Therefore, he began davening, fasting, repenting, and pleading with Hashem to hasten the geulah.
"And I turned my face to Hashem to request tefillah and pleading with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes."
"And I was still speaking in tefillah, and the man Gavriel, whom I saw in the first vision, was flying towards me at the time of the afternoon offering. "He caused me to understand and he spoke with me, And he said, ‘I have gone out now to sharpen your wisdom.'"
Gavriel corrected Daniel's erroneous conclusion that the geulah was possible seventy years after the subjugation of Yehoyakim. Daniel now understood that the geulah would only take place seventy years after the destruction of Yerushalayim.
"Seventy weeks have been decreed upon your people, and on your holy city to wipe out sin, to eradicate transgression, to bring everlasting righteousness, and to seal vision and prophet, and to anoint the Holy of Holies."
"Seventy weeks" - Gavriel informed Daniel that the decree that was passed on Bnei Yisrael that they would be in galus for seventy years was a punishment for the desecration of seventy shemittos. During that time, they also committed other aveiros, but they were punished for these aveiros in other ways, such as their subjugation to foreign powers. The galus, however, was a specific punishment for desecrating the shemittos.
"You should know and understand -from the coming out of the word to return and build Yerushalayim until the anointing of the prince will be seven weeks. For sixty two weeks it will be rebuilt, street and moat, in difficult times."
"Seven weeks" - This refers to seven weeks of years, or forty nine years. Forty-nine years after the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash, Coresh granted permission for the rebuilding of the Beis Hamikdash. (He later withdrew his permission.)
"Sixty -two weeks"- The second Beis Hamikdash stood for 420 years which is 62 weeks of years.
"In difficult times" -The years of the second Beis Hamikdash were difficult times for Bnei Yisrael since they were subject to foreign rule under the Persians, the Greeks, and then the Romans.
"And after the sixty-two weeks, the anointed one will be cut off and will be no more, and the people of the prince who comes will destroy the city and the kodesh, and its end will be in a flood, and until the end of the war, desolation is decreed.
"The anointed one will be cut off and will be no more." -The reign of Jewish kings will come to an end as the Churban approaches. The last king, Agrippa, was killed in Rome, and the last Kohen Gadol was killed as well.
"And the people of the prince who comes will destroy the city and the kodesh".
"And the people of the prince" - The Roman themselves destroyed Yerushalayim; Titus, the "prince" only wanted to rule over Yerushalayim.
"Until the end of the war" - Until the time of the war of Gog and Magog arrives.
"He will reinforce a covenant for the great ones for one week, and for half of the week he will cancel the sacrifice and offering. In a high place, the mute abominations will be, until annihilation as decreed will pour down upon the abomination."
"He will reinforce a covenant" - For one week only, Titus sought a covenant of peace with the "great ones" - the leaders of Bnei Yisrael.
"For half a week, he will cancel the sacrifice and offering"
"In a high place" - Adionus set up his statue in the site of the Beis Hamikdash.
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