The Jewish Eye
What We Knew
What We Knew
Terror, Mass Murder, and Everyday Life in Nazi Germany
An Oral History
By Eric A. Johnson and Karl-Heinz Reuband
Basic Books: 2005
Reviewed by Anna Dogole - June 13, 2005
What was daily life like in Nazi Germany? What did the German people know about the mass murder of the Jews being carried out in their name? What was known about the Nazis' abuse of their political rivals? Why did non-Jewish Germans venerate Hitler? These and many more questions are answered in What We Knew - Terror, Mass Murder, and Everyday Life in Nazi Germany. Written by Eric A. Johnson and Karl-Heinz Reuband, this informative book contains the excerpts of their interviews and testimonies from Jewish Survivors as well as from 'average' Germans about their experiences during the Holocaust and what they knew about the Nazi extermination programs. The interview narratives are presented in a question and answer format.
In all, excerpts from forty interviews are included in this text, split evenly between Jewish and non-Jewish interviewees.
The book is divided into four main parts. The first two parts contain the interview narratives, which are organized into two main parts, the Jewish Survivors' Testimonies and the Ordinary German' Testimonies. These testimonies are further categorized into subsections that detail the type of testimony given and which cover
and from the German side,
- Jews who left Germany before Kristallnacht
- Jews who left Germany after Kristallnacht
- Jews who were deported from Germany during the War
- Jews who went into hiding
In total, the authors interviewed or received responses to written surveys from nearly 3,000 people. The last two sections of this book provide an analysis, by the authors, of all the information garnered from the interviews they conducted and the surveys they received. These last two sections also provide supporting information for the judgments that they reached. The book concludes with an essay detailing what the authors learned from this study and what they think the 'average' German knew about the attempted extermination of the Jews and the extent of antisemitism that existed in Germany before and during the war.
- Everyday life and knowing little about Mass Murder
- Everyday life and hearing about Mass Murder
- Witnessing and Participating in Mass Murder
What We Knew is an important book on a number of accounts, not the least being the firsthand testimonies offered by the interviewees. More important, this book serves to show the wide gaps in information and understanding that existed between the Jews of Nazi Germany and their non-Jewish neighbors. As important, this book provides substantial evidence that the vast majority of Germans knew about the concentrations camps, the mass murder of Jews, the murder of other 'undesirables' such as the physically and mentally handicapped, and the torture of political dissents. This book also shows that they willingly acquiesced to these practices. The interviews, especially those with the non-Jews also illustrate why Hitler was such a popular figure for many Germans, and why the German people embraced Nazi ideology and the political methodology of the Third Reich.
A wellspring of information, this text provides unprecedented insights into the mind set and daily lives of 'average' Germans, and the lives led by Jews in Nazi Germany. This text is ideally suited for use as a suplemental text in Univeristiy level classes on the Holocaust, the Thrid Reich, or World War II. It is also an emitally accessible, informative text that will interest general readers and scholars alike.
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